Report: EOS Network is just a cloud computing service, not a blockchain
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Answer Report: EOS Network is just a cloud computing service, not a blockchain
A blockchain testing company claims to have found something very shocking in EOS – a protocol that raised $4 billion a few months ago in the initial coin offering – that it may not actually be a blockchain!
In a new experiment, benchmarking firm Whiteblock concluded that EOS tokens (and its RAM marketplace) are primarily a cloud computing service — built on a completely centralized premise. As such, it lacks some basic aspects to come under the blockchain, such as the lack of stamina.
The tests were conducted by the major blockchain institution ConsenSys to create benchmarks to define standards for core layer protocols.
“Through practical tests and experiments in a specific laboratory environment, this research provides a comprehensive and objective model for installation design, performance, and economics. [EOS] In order to provide a reference to the blockchain community,” explains the paper that Whiteblock shared directly with Hard Fork.Read:Bitcoin breaks above $10,000 for the first time since February
Whiteblock built a replica of the EOS network to destroy it
EOS differs from Ethereum and Bitcoin in a lot of ways, but especially in how it defines who should be to generate blocks and reap the rewards for doing so.
Unlike business validation software workgroups, which allow anyone to contribute to the operation of the network, EOS chooses who should process transactions (group producers) through a complex voting process called (DPoS).
During this vote, each EOS token carries the equivalent of one vote, which means that those with a lot of EOS have more opinions on who controls the network.
So, to run this experiment, Whiteblock ran a replica of EOS that it claims works the same way as the real network.
“The block producers in our environment perform the same functions as the block producers in the mainnet,” said Zach Cole, Whiteblock’s chief technology officer. “We provide the node or nodes within a controlled test environment, configure network conditions between these nodes in order to simulate real performance, and automate their processes and procedures so that we can monitor their behavior and measure their performance in a deterministic manner.”Read:Coinbase faces crypto patent infringement case amid declining trading volumes on its platform
The company initially began testing its version of the EOS blockchain in September. The tests were conducted in an isolated environment and lasted for two months.
The company describes EOS as more than a network that provides cloud computing services, stored in a “black box,” for users to access. Shockingly, it says the entire EOS system is built on the wrong central model.
“EOS is not a block, but rather a distributed homogeneous database management system, a clear distinction in that its transactions are not cryptographically validated,” the company says. “EOS block producers are very centralized and users can only access the network using block producers as intermediaries. Block producers are a single point of failure for the entire system.”
EOS is not completely fast and can be controlled by groups
Much of the research has been devoted to proving that there is no proper protocol to prevent block producers from colluding to maintain their role as block producers, with little protection against bad actors that form “organized pools” to wreck the entire network.
As such, the report notes that the EOS network suffers from a failure to comply with zero tolerance (BFT), leaving the network open for being under the control of complicit members.Read:Report: “Ripple” … the second highest market value in the crypto world
For a blockchain to be a “BFT,” the network must be able to withstand system failures that result from situations related to mathematical puzzles. If that’s not possible, bad actors are theoretically capable of processing false transactions, so the “BFT” is about blockchain credibility.
“A true BFT system will not be prone to agglomerations that form in the system, but […] The (groupings) are easily configured in an EOS network, thus negating any effort to claim BFT tolerance. “
In particular, the researchers note that the main threat to EOS integrity is the “Sybil” attack, which involves malicious actors who engage in other network contributors from being able to process transactions completely by creating fake identities and using them to initiate spam and DDoS attacks.
“This is actually a major weakness in the system because fraudulent users are essentially able to create malicious accounts much faster than block producers can come to a consensus. [بشأن الحسابات التي تستبعد]The company warns against this and clarifies that: “This also proves the high level of centralization that exists in EOS and the tremendous power that block producers have.”
The report then notes that block producers do not actually process transactions based on any consensus algorithm, instead confirming transactions “in a mechanical way”, without formally verifying the validity of the transactions being processed.
For this reason, Whiteblock’s standards make it clear that the amount of transactions that can be processed by EOS is much less than what it initially reviews in its marketing materials, and never exceeds 250 transactions per second (TPS), even with optimal settings like zero response. packet loss.
It should be noted that other testers have already determined the speed of the EOS network. The common belief is that the current maximum throughput of the EOS network is about 4,000 transactions per second.
According to the EOS network’s white paper, it is entirely possible for an “EOS network” to process millions of transactions per second in a single day.
“During tests with real-world conditions, performance dropped below 50 transactions per second, putting the system close to performance found in Ethereum,” according to the company’s report details.
(BTC) is currently capable of processing up to 7 transactions per second, and (Ethereum) can process about 20 transactions per second.
The White Block report says that EOS . network Do not use encryption
According to Cole, the EOS network stores all transaction-related data in a type of table designed by Dan Larimer, CEO of EOS, known as Chainbase.
When the EOS network confirms transactions, the producers of Whiteblock’s blockers are simply pointing to new transaction data against this table, rather than confirming their legitimacy with cryptography.
The company says that EOS transactions only happen because block producers update data stored in the underlying Chainbase table, rather than verified changes to the state of the underlying blockchain, as is the case with Ethereum.
“All of these procedures operate in an environment that lacks cryptographic validation of contracts and transactions,” the research says. “The EOS network is basically the same as the central cloud computing architecture. [العميل/الخادم] Without the core components of a blockchain or a P2P network.”
Having a network share validate transactions by checking a private table has consequences. Not only is it unfamiliar with a cryptocurrency, it gives developers virtually endless amounts of “rollback”, meaning that EOS network transactions can be reversed by those with access (such as block producers).
In fact, there have already been instances of reverse transactions and accounts being frozen by the EOS network.
“The ability to undo history (or anything else) related to status is an idea that directly contradicts the basic definition of what can be considered a blockchain, a rigid block characterized by the immovability of data,” Cole concluded.
One of the sources, a DApp developer for the EOS network, said this report’s explanation of how EOS validates transactions was particularly “weird.”
The source explained that Chainbase is just a way to store information in real time, as with folders or files. In this case, the EOS network stores transaction-related data on Chainbase, which puts it in a central location (similar to a full Bitcoin node).
The block producers then validate the transactions using cryptography, writing the confirmed transactions to the blockchain as part of the process.
Chainbases tables are really meant to improve EOS network performance, as they allow EOS to store data in RAM, which it then uses to quickly produce blocks.
This would suggest that EOS is indeed using encryption after all, which contradicts Whiteblock’s conclusions.
Another point of view
It should be noted that ConsenSys, which commissioned WhiteBlock, is investing heavily in the blockchain ecosystem, the main competitor to the EOS network. It describes itself as an “investment production studio” focused on developing Ethereum-powered platforms.
And if this whole thing wasn’t strange enough – the EOS network was already loaded onto the Ethereum blockchain, being launched as an ERC-20-compliant token.
But after EOS launched to the main network in June to have its own blockchain, many Ethereum tokens switched to the main network like Everyedia, which is run by Larry Sanger, one of the founders of Wikipedia.
It should also be said that EOS has long been the subject of controversy. The launch of its flagship was linked to several nightmares, and the whole process lasted for more than a week, with block producers failing to agree on whether the EOS network was ready to launch on its own.
With the EOS network running at full capacity, Block.one has paid more than $400,000 to independent cybersecurity researchers to find critical flaws in the code that weren’t fixed in time for release.
In any case, ConsenSys says it will use Whiteblock’s results to develop comprehensive reports, which it will present to partners including Ledger Capital, Bo Shen, Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, Microsoft and Google. It was reported that academic institutions such as MIT, USC and Duke Universities have committed to contributing resources for research.
For those who are still not convinced, the company also says that it will broadcast benchmark tests to EOS in November of this year.
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